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Updated: February 25, Reader-Approved References. New tank syndrome happens when the levels of ammonia and nitrites rise too high, harming fish. Often, this happens with a new tank because the filter hasn't developed the proper bacteria to deal with the ammonia and nitrites.
To mature the tank, you add ammonia to the water.Military tech: The invisible tank PL-01 unveiled; Super-human strength armor suit - Compilation
That may sound counter-intuitive, but adding ammonia allows bacteria to develop that will remove the ammonia and nitrites from the water. Then, when your fish add ammonia to the water through defecatingthe bacteria will be able to remove it. New Tank Syndrome happens when the levels of ammonia and nitrites rise too high, which can harm your fish. To avoid New Tank Syndrome, first, add an aquarium ammonia chloride mix to the water in your tank. This will allow healthy bacteria to build up, which will help regulate the amount of ammonia and nitrates in the water.
Follow the instruction on the bottle to figure out how much you need to add. Then, use an aquarium test kit to measure the levels of ammonia in the water.
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The U.S. Army's New 84-Ton Tank Prototype Is Nearly IED-Proof [Updated]
Has the water in your newly set up aquarium turned a milky white color? After the initial set up, every tank goes through a period of having cloudy water. The cloudy water is a sign that your tank is going through the nitrogen cycle and is starting the foundations to make your aquarium ready to support fish and other living inhabitants.
So, what causes the water to turn cloudy? There are two bacteriae that come into play, autotrophic and heterotrophic. What is the difference between the two? Well, autotrophic bacteria is self-sufficient. This type of bacteria is capable of producing its own food from nonliving elements, including light. On the other hand, heterotrophic bacteria, which is larger than autotrophic, relies on organic material, such as fish waste, dead plants, leftover food, etc.
It is the second bacteria type, the Heterotrophic bacteria, that is usually responsible for the biofilm that provides the foundation for the aquarium.
Unfortunately, these bacteria can also leave a slimy residue on the tank walls and any ornaments in the tank. Heterotrophic bacteria can reproduce faster than Autotrophic, multiplying every 15 to 20 minutes as compared to around 24 hours for autotrophs. After setting up a new aquarium, it is the Heterotroph bacteria that starts to function before, and quicker, than the Autotrophs. The Heterotroph bacteria triggers the cloudy water which is seen in the new tank.
The Heterotrophic bacteria is normally responsible for the bloom we see if there are any bits of organic waste within the substrate. In most tanks, it is normally the Heterotroph bacterium bloom.
It is very common of a bacterial bloom to appear within a tank that is going under a fishless cycle. The de-chlorination of the water helps the bacterial populations grow in the tank. How harsh the bloom is, and if there is a bloom depends upon how much minerals are found within the water source. Unlike the Autotrophs, the Heterotrophs start to populate and reproduce quickly with the minerals found in the water. Other Causes of Cloudy Water Changes within the Tank: If you have recently been changing the tank around removing substrate, or adding itthis may affect the bacterial colonies present within your tank.
If these bacterial colonies are disrupted greatly, bacteria can be lost. The reestablishing of these bacterial colonies can cause the tank to go a milky white cloudiness, like it would if you had recently set it up. Also, adding any anti-bacterial medications can affect the bacterial colonies.
Large Additions of Livestock: If you have added large amounts of livestock, this can affect the bacterial colonies within your tank. It will cause the bacterial colonies within the tank to try and reproduce every 20 minutes, in an attempt to convert the additional waste being produced.
Not Cleaning Substrate Enough before Adding It: If adding in new substrate that is poorly cleaned, it can cause the tanks water to go a milky white.
Over cleaning the Tank: If you over clean your tank, you can eradicate a lot of the bacterial colonies. This causes your tank to go through a mini-cycle, trying to recover and reproduce enough bacteria to sustain the tanks nitrogen cycle again.
Please leave me a comment. Jack Chessher is a master member at My Aquarium Club. We are going through this now! Our PH is high 7.New tank syndrome is a generic and all-encompasing explanation for loss of fish in an aquarium that is under two months old. There are really a wide number of things that these losses could be more accurately attributed to, but the fact that many new fish tank owners encounter these problems has resulted in getting them all lumped together. Though the actual cause of death can range from poisoning to diseaseor from improper water conditions to stocking problemsthe root of all these is twofold.
When you first set up your aquarium, the biological filter is not ready to handle the waste the fish are producing. Getting the biological filter up-to-speed requires putting the tank through a process called cycling the aquarium. Until the biological filter can process the fish's waste, the fish are swimming in it. This is stressful to the fish. Directly, the elevated ammonia in the water reduces the availability of oxygen, making it harder for the fish to breathe.
It also can cause a variety of other health problems directly, not the least of which is blindness. For these reasons, it is important to keep up with extra water changes while the tank is still cycling. Indirectly, the elevated waste levels in the fish tank stresses the fish, making them more susceptible to disease and making any harassment they get from other fish or any other stressers they have to deal with that much worse.
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For these reasons it is also important to keep up with the necessary extra water changes during the cycling period. In addition to the ammonia poisoning issues, the fact that a new aquarium owner does not have experience caring for a fish tank and the fish in it also contributes to this stress and loss. New aquarium owners are more likely to make simple mistakes, such as over feeding the fish, which will contribute to poor water quality, increasing the waste related problems explained above, or having the temperature wrong, which increases the general stress the fish are under.
These simple tips should help you avoid unnecessary losses to 'new tank syndrome' while your new aquarium is cycling. Simply put, no, you can't. There are people that will try to sell you ammonia removers which will remove the ammonia, but make the cycling process more difficult. Others will try to sell you bacteria boosters to make the tank magically cycle overnight, but these are highly unreliable. Your best bet is to carefully cycle the tank with a small number of hearty fish, and keep up with the necessary extra water changes while you do so.
Thank you for your support. Page most recently modified: June 18,; Site most recently updated: April 09, First Tank Guide Home. I couldn't find a better resource! Your help is something I can't duplicate locally!This year, they publicly unveiled what is possibly the most ambitious ground vehicle program since the end of the Cold War.
The centerpiece is the T Armata main battle tank, a radical design that highlights a troubling lack of fighting vehicle development in the West. The turret is completely unmanned; instead, the three crew members operate the tank in a compartment at the front of the hull.
This provides several advantages. Another possible tradeoff involves the crew compartment; while the front armor of most tanks is often the toughest, the T crew will certainly be the first to know if any rounds do get through.
Some designs, like the Israeli Merkava, have moved the engine to the front in order to provide more protection for the crew for exactly this reason. The T crew may not have to worry, however. In an unprecedented shift to prioritize protection over mobility, which shaped the design of many Soviet tanks, the T will incorporate several active protection systems designed to kill incoming missiles before they even strike the tank.
The tank also features explosive reactive armor as an inherent part of the design, providing an increased defense against projectiles. Completing the defense are slat armor panels at the rear, which provide some protection against shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons. The overall armor composition is new, but its makeup is unknown. The T features a new target and sensor package, including an active electronically scanned array radar suite derived from a fighter jet, enabling the T to track multiple targets simultaneously and provide automatic ballistic solutions to the gunner.
The commander has day, night, and thermal optics in a remote systems that also features a machine gun similar to the American Common Remotely Operated Weapon Station. Ogorkiewicz elaborates:. On the Sinai front, the successful assault crossing of the Suez Canal by the Egyptian forces was followed immediately by counter-attacks by the Israeli nd Division, which ran into Egyptian infantry equipped with an exceptionally large number of Soviet-made Sagger anti-tank guided missiles and failed, losing of its tanks.
This immediately led to worldwide rumours that tanks were no longer effective and it took some time for these to be disproved by the evidence provided by the rest of the Yom Kippur War, in which many more tanks were destroyed by the guns of the opposing tanks than by guided missiles. Western tank development has ebbed and flowed, whereas Russian armored vehicle research remained almost a constant. Thus, major Western European armies, such as those of Germany, France, Britain and Italy, were left with no more than about tanks each… But elsewhere tanks have continued to be viewed as a major element of military strength.
In particular, the army of the Russian Federation has maintained a fleet of 2, to 3, modern tanks backed by a reserve of several thousand older vehicles…. That trend seems to have continued. The current American main battle tank, the M1A2 Abrams, is an improved version of a design from The Abrams is good tank, and the performance of its predecessor, the M1A1, in the Persian Gulf War is often cited as proving its superiority over Russian tanks like the T In the decisive engagement at the Battle of 73 Easting during the Gulf War, one particular troop of 12 M1s destroyed 28 tanks, 16 armored personnel carriers, and 30 trucks in less than half an hour.
In peacetime these variants are turned out in large quantities, but they are only issued to countries friendly to the Soviet Union. I have seen two variants of the BMP-1 infantry combat vehicle-one which is issued to the Soviet army and another which is intended for the Soviet Union's Arab friends. Therefore, the overmatch the Abrams enjoyed may fast be disappearing. Tanks from the South Korea and China have leap-frogged the Abrams in terms of fire-control capability. The Army plans to keep the Abrams design untilafter the Ground Combat Vehicle program intended to replace many ground vehicles was canceled, itself replacing another canceled program called Future Combat Systems Manned Ground Vehicle.
Even then, upgrading the Abrams presents problems. The M1A3 upgrades assume the mm cannon and associated ammo will be sufficient to engage modern tanks like the T While the United States has experimented with a mm gun, it has never put an autoloading tank into full production.
Its heavy at over 60 tons, making it difficult to airlift. According to reports, the Russian military intends to purchase 2, Ts over the next five years.Defense Specialist Allison Barrie has a first look at the Army's new machine gun, which is made to be lighter, shoot farther, and pack the power of an M1 Abrams tank in the palm of soldiers' hands.
The new light machine gun will weigh less — and yet shoot farther. It should make U. Armed with the NGSARs, soldiers will have the confidence of knowing the new weapon can be relied on for stopping power against sophisticated adversaries who arrive to fight in advanced body armor.
Recent conflicts have shown that currently issued weapons have not been sufficient when tackling the challenge of forces with defense innovation and access to modern equipment. Even if a threat is about 2, feet away and seemingly well protected, the new weapon will blast through enhanced body armor. Distance, accuracy, ergonomics and lethality are all expected to be improved in this new generation of weapon.
Infantry will also be able to take advantage of new specially designed, harder hitting, plus lighter weight bullets. The aim is for the NGSARs to fire bullets at pressure levels similar to those achieved by tanks when they fire. Rounds will smash through advanced adversary body armor even at a distance, allowing soldiers to accurately shoot while maintaining a safe distance from the threat whenever possible.
The Army would like the new weapon chamber pressure to be between 60 and 80 KSI kilopound per square inch. Assault rifles tend to be around 45 KSI, so this will definitely be higher. The ammunition weight is also reduced. The aim is for the new ammo to be 20 percent less than an equal brass case weight. With the buttstock down, the Army also aims for it to be 35 inches long or less.
In terms of dispersion, both the automatic 14 inch, and the semi-automatic 7-inch will have an average mean radius of meters 1, feet.
The fire control, including day and night optics, will be a maximum of three pounds. The rate of fire will be 60 rounds per minute with 3-round burst for 15 minutes without a barrel change or cook-off. The Army is searching for a Goldilocks solution to ammo fit for the current and future conflicts.
It has to travel at sufficient speed, but with enough mass to be effective against enemy forces protected by body armor. The problem with 5. Advances like this new light machine gun and new ammo for soldiers are very important.Often we receive many questions which is the best main battle tank in the world.
Which is the greatest modern MBT and why. Our Top 10 analysis is based on the combined score of protection, firepower, accuracy and mobility. None of the tanks listed here have seen combat against each other during military operations yet.
And even though some things, such as armor composition, are kept in high secrecy, we know a lot about these machines. Data on their protection, firing range, accuracy, capabilities of their fire control systems, and so on are widely available. So we know capabilities of each of these tanks. This analysis is based on specifications and available data. All of the tanks mentioned here are incredibly powerful and devastating. However crew training of the tank is also an important factor, as performance of the actual tank depends from the crew performance.
This list do not contains tanks that are currently under development, at the prototype stage or tanks that never reach production. The only exception here is the Russian Armata which was produced in small numbers for testing and evaluation, but is not yet produced in quantity.
Currently top 10 best tanks in the world are these:. It is a recent version of the proven and successful Leopard 2 design. It has additional armor and updated electronics. This tank has better accuracy and longer range of fire comparing with other tanks due to its powerful gun and advanced fire control system.
During numerous international tank challenge competitions the Leopard 2 series tanks outperformed American M1A2 SEPBritish Challenger 2French Leclerc and some other tanks in terms of overall performance. This MBT is powered by a proven multi-fuel diesel engine, developing 1 hp.
General Dynamics Unveils New U.S. Army Tank Prototype
Despite increase in weight vehicle has increased mobility due to improved suspension components. Cross-country performance is similar to other Leopard 2 series tanks.
Deliveries commenced in German army plans to upgrade 50 to tanks to the 2A7 standard. Currently the Black Panther is one of the most advanced main battle tank in the world, outclassing anything North Korea or China have.
Furthermore it is the most expensive main battle tank to date. As of at least tanks were delivered. South Korean requirement is for around of these new tanks.
These will eventually replace the older K1 tanks. This tank uses composite armor of undisclosed type and explosive reactive armor modules. It is claimed that front armor withstands direct hits from mm tank rounds, fired from L55 guns.
New Tank, Cloudy Water and No Fish
Its protection level is broadly similar to that of the M1A2 Abramsconsidering that the K2 is much lighter. The Black Panther tank is also completed with an active protection system and countermeasures system, that further increase its survivability on the battlefield.
This tank has a very advanced fire control system with can spot, track and fire automatically at visible vehicle-size targets, and even low-flying helicopters, without needing any input from a human operator. The K2 also uses advanced munitions. The Black Panther is fitted with a powerful diesel engine. It is fast and has a state-of-the-art hydropneumatic suspension. This tank has incredible technology and armor.Heavy does not even begin to describe the U. Army's new tank. At 84 tons, the Ground Combat Vehicle prototype weighs more than twice as much as its predecessor, the Bradley Fighting Vehicle.
The Bradley is designed to carry a six-man squad and three-man driving crew into combat, while the GCV will carry a larger, nine-man squad. Both vehicles will provide covering fire and damage enemy tanks. But the military has built the new GCV to withstand a kind of threat that didn't exist when the Bradley was deployed in the early s: improvised explosive devices. Part of logic behind the new tank's massive size is that soldiers inside a vehicle are more likely to survive an explosion if there's adequate space for them to wear armor while seated.
The extra space also helps distribute pressure from the blast and thus lessens its impact. Another reason the GCV is so huge is that it's required to carry a larger gun than the Bradley does; the new tank will hold a 30mm cannon, probably the pound Mk44 Bushmaster II.
Finally, the GCV's extra weight means it will need to be manufactured from the start with a more powerful engine. By contrast, the Bradley got heavier as the Army added armor to it in Iraq, and its original engine wasn't powerful enough to support the extra weight.
The Ground Combat Vehicle is pretty much the opposite of the original plan to replace the Bradley. A high-concept proposal called Future Combat Systems aimed to make all U. Army vehicles lighter. But during the long ground wars in Iraq and Afghanistan in which IEDs were the top cause of fatalitiesit became clear clear that heavier, not lighter, was the better vehicle design.
The U. The Pentagon is scheduled to award the first contract to manufacture GCVs in An earlier version of this piece misstated the transport capacity of the GCV as a six-man squad, instead of the correct nine-man squad. The 84 ton weight of the GCV only refers to the prototype, and the weight may easily change in the next six years of development.
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